American Psychiatric Association's (APA)
|The references given below are to clarify criticisms made in our essays
and papers about psychiatry, labeling psychiatric "illnesses", and the
flaws of psychiatry (which are major). The DSM information is taken
directly from the Fourth Edition of the DSM-IV, copyright 1994,
printed in 1997. Realize that psychiatry seems to make sense within it's
own limited framework of nomenclature and definitions, but then again so
do all mythologies, and the fault with psychiatry is not logical inconsistencies
within the field, but severely flawed basic assumptions about man,
his mind, his behavior, life, the environment and the relationships between
See below for a list of psychiatric groups which support the DSM-IV. It is safe to say these are each front groups for large money interests, despite how they present themselves to the general public. Many psychiatric "groups" and "associations" function as trade unions for the psychiatrists and a source of continual advertising for the major drug companies. These "professional associations" (i.e. trade unions) exist solely to benefit the psychiatrists and the drug companies.
If you find yourself agreeing with the DSM, also realize that much of the analysis of "disorders" and "illnesses" results from real problems that people have with their minds, people, and life. Some people are compulsive, others repressed, other's afraid of things, and so on. Psychiatry has investigated, detailed and observed what's wrong with a mind and person way past the point of ridiculousness. It's not that they haven't examined these things. The severe error is calling them all "diseases", "illnesses", and "disorders". They continue to categorize every behavior which they consider deviates from complete "normalcy" as an "illness" or "disorder". I expect we should soon see "chronic nose-picking syndrome", "excessive compulsive reading disorder", and "excessive happiness syndrome" as they continue to catalog every possible human behavior as an "illness" or "deviation from the norm", implying altered brain chemistry and genetic defects as causes, and prescribing DRUGS, DRUGS AND MORE DRUGS as the frequent "cure". Or Electric Shock. Or brain butchery (surgery).
They are a sorry bunch. Keep your distance if you know what's good for you!
DSM-IV: DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS
DSM-IV is a team effort. More than 1,000 people (and numerous professional Organizations) have helped us in the preparation of this document. Members of the Task Force on DSM-IV and DSM-IV Staff are listed on p. ix, members of the DSM-IV Work Groups are listed on pp. x-xii, and a list of other participants is included in Appendix J.
The major responsibility for the content of DSM-IV rests with the Task Force on DSM-IV and members of the DSM-IV Work Groups. They have worked (often much harder than they bargained for) with a dedication and good cheer that has been inspirational to us. Bob Spitzer has our special thanks for his untiring efforts and unique perspective. Norman Sartorius, Darrel Regier, Lewis Judd, Fred Goodwin, and Chuck Kaelber were instrumental in facilitating a mutually productive interchange between the American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization that has improved both DSM-IV and ICD-10, and increased their compatibility. We are grateful to Robert Israel, Sue Meads, and Amy Blum at the National Center for Health Statistics and Andrea Albaum-Feinstein at the American Health Information Management Association for suggestions on the DSM-IV coding system. Denis Prager, Peter Nathan, and David Kupfer helped us to develop a novel data reanalysis strategy that has been supported with funding from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
Many individuals within the American Psychiatric Association deserve recognition. Mel Sabshin's special wisdom and grace made even the most tedious tasks seem worth doing. The American Psychiatric Association Committee on Psychiatric Diagnosis and Assessment (chaired by Layton McCurdy) provided valuable direction and counsel. We would also like to thank the American Psychiatric Association Presidents (Drs. Fink, Pardes, Benedek, Hartmann, English, and McIntyre) and Assembly Speakers (Drs. Cohen, Flamm, Hanin, Pfaehler, and Shellow) who helped with the planning of our work. Carolyn Robinowitz and Jack White, and their respective staffs in the American Psychiatric Association Medical Director's Office and the Business Administration Office, have provided valuable assistance in the organization of the project.
Several other individuals have our special gratitude. Wendy Davis, Nancy Vettorello, and Nancy Sydnor-Greenberg developed and implemented an organizational structure that has kept this complex project from spinning out of control. We have also been blessed with an unusually able administrative staff, which has included Elisabeth Fitzhugh, Willa Hall, Kelly McKinney, Gloria Miele, Helen Stayna, Sarah Tilly, Nina Rosenthal, Susan Mann, Joanne Mas, and, especially, Cindy Jones. Ruth Ross, our tireless Science Writer, has been responsible for improving the clarity of expression and organization of DSM-IV. Myriam Kline (Research Coordinator for the NIH-funded DSM-IV Focused Field Trials), Jim Thompson (Research Coordinator for the MacArthur Foundation-funded Videotape Field Trial), and Sandy Ferris (Assistant Director for the Office of Research) have made many valuable contributions. We would also like to acknowledge all the other staff persons at the American Psychiatric Association who have helped with this project. Ron McMillen, Claire Reinburg, Pam Harley, and Jane Davenport of American Psychiatric Press have provided expert production assistance.
Allen Frances, M.D. Harold Alan Pincus, M.D.
Chair, Task Force on DSM-IV Vice-Chair, Task Force on DSM-IV
Michael B. First, M.D. Thomas A. Widiger, Ph.D.
Editor, DSM-IV Text and Criteria Research Coordinator
Say NO To Psychiatry!
DSM-IV published by the American Psychiatric Association
They Say You're Crazy: How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Decide Who's Normal by Paula J. Caplan, Ph.D.
Making Us Crazy: DSM: The Psychiatric Bible and the Creation of Mental Disorders by Herb Kutchins, Stuart A. Kirk
The Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct by Thomas S. Szasz, M.D., Professor
Law, Liberty, and Psychiatry : An Inquiry into the Social Uses of Mental Health Practices by Thomas S. Szasz, M.D., Professor
DSM-IV Casebook: A Learning Companion to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders by Robert L. Spitzer, Miriam Gibbon, Andrew E. Skodol, Michael B. First
DSM-IV Made Easy: The Clinician's Guide to Diagnosis by James Morrison
Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-IV (4th Ed) by John S. McIntyre
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|©Gene Zimmer 1999 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED|